Difference between revisions of "Song"

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''Category Editor: Dr Vic Gammon''
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''Category Advisor: Dr Vic Gammon''
  
 
There are many thousands of songs. There are many song collections and many versions of the same song. Where to start looking? That's the problem.  
 
There are many thousands of songs. There are many song collections and many versions of the same song. Where to start looking? That's the problem.  
 +
 +
All songs currently in Folkopedia are listed on the [[Category:Song| Song Category Page]]
  
 
Note. Our intention is not to restrict this initiative to English Song, but to use the present headings as a starting point to view whatever develops from wherever it comes.
 
Note. Our intention is not to restrict this initiative to English Song, but to use the present headings as a starting point to view whatever develops from wherever it comes.
 +
 +
 +
 +
==The Take 6 Transcription Programme==
 +
 +
Take 6 (also more recently, and in an augmented form, known as The Full English) is a major initiative from the English Folk Dance and Song Society to put online some of the major manuscript collections of folk songs and folk music. Check it out here [http://library.efdss.org/archives/]
 +
 +
The Take 6 Transcription Programme is an initiative hosted by Folkopedia to make the content of these manuscripts available as PDF sheet music, MIDIs, MusicXMLs and abc files. Check it out here: [[Take_6_Transcription_Programme|Transcription_Programme]]
  
 
==Traditional Songs by Theme==
 
==Traditional Songs by Theme==
  
 
It's often difficult to categorise a song. Is the song of a Thames Bargeman a sea song or an industrial one? Likewise a Fishing song. Many industrial or rural songs had a political dimension. It doesn't do to worry too much about it - the categories are really just a rough guide to get to something that fits the browser's interest and in the spirit of the Wiki might lead to somewhere altogether unexpected!
 
It's often difficult to categorise a song. Is the song of a Thames Bargeman a sea song or an industrial one? Likewise a Fishing song. Many industrial or rural songs had a political dimension. It doesn't do to worry too much about it - the categories are really just a rough guide to get to something that fits the browser's interest and in the spirit of the Wiki might lead to somewhere altogether unexpected!
 +
Some [[Song Books]] are arranged by theme.
 +
Here are some of the common themes in folk song:
 +
 +
'''[[Songs of Love and Marriage]]'''  ''romantic, unrequited, happy and unhappy wedlock, spinsters and batchelors, broken tokens''
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 +
'''[[Songs of Seduction]]''' ''brief, bawdy, passionate and tragic
  
===Sea Songs===
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'''[[Songs of Country Life]]'''  ''millers, blacksmiths, cobblers''
Traditional sea songs are usually divided into two groups. [[Shanties]] were the songs sailors sang to help them with the hard work on board the big sailing ships like the "windjammers" of the 19th century. The songs the sailor sang for enjoyment and relaxation when he was "off watch" are often called [[forebitters]], and although many of them were stories about sailors or the sea, they could be any kind of song.
 
  
===Rural Songs===
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'''[[Songs of Good Company]]''' ''drinking, carousing, conviviality''
  
===Industrial Songs===
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'''[[Hunting and Poaching Songs]]''' ''the fox, the hare, transportation''
The folk revival of the early 20th century revealed songs from the rural parts of England, and the songs reflected the life of farm labourers or rural craftsmen. Even at that time, these songs were seen by many as belonging to a bygone era. Most English working people by then lived in large cities and towns, and worked in factories, mines, and other places of intense mechanisation and industrialisation. Before the 1960s, it was assumed that these people did not have any "folk songs", but when the seond revival came about, the two people who are said to be most responsible for it both found this not to be the case. [[Bert Lloyd]] had been employed by the National Coal Board in the late 1950s to find songs from miners, and [[Ewan MacColl]] at the same time was engaged in researching the [[radio ballads]], many of which were concerned with heavy industry.
 
  
===Love Songs===
+
'''[[Sea Songs]]''' ''press gangs, men o' war, fishing & whaling, jack on shore''
  
===Songs of Seduction===
+
'''[[Soldiers' Songs]]''' ''the king's shilling, bloody battles''
  
===Songs of Good Company===
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'''[[Songs of Comedy and Diversion]]''' ''comical tales, legendary animals, marvels''
  
===Hunting and Poaching Songs===
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'''[[Ritual Songs]]''' ''folk ceremonies, mummer's plays''
  
===Songs of work, occupation and trade===
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'''[[Songs of the Road]]''' ''travellers, gypsies and journeymen''
  
===Songs of Diversion===
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'''[[Political and Historical Songs]]''' ''rebellion, reform, great events''
  
===Travellers' Songs===
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'''[[Ballads]]'''
  
===Ceremonial Songs===
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'''[[Children's Songs]]'''  ''rhymes, game songs''
  
===Political Songs===
+
'''[[Songs of Heroes and Villains]]''' ''Highwaymen, scoundrels, and adventurers, real and fictitious''
  
===Ballads===
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'''[[Industrial Songs]]''' ''pits and mills''
 +
 
 +
 
 +
English ballad broadsides by theme at the [https://digital.nls.uk/english-ballads/archive/74896726#?c=0&m=0&s=0&cv=0&xywh=-4049%2C0%2C10597%2C5906 National Library of Scotland]
  
 
==Traditional Singers==
 
==Traditional Singers==
Line 69: Line 86:
 
--[[User:JohnnyAdams|JohnnyAdams]] 22:46, 14 March 2007 (UTC)
 
--[[User:JohnnyAdams|JohnnyAdams]] 22:46, 14 March 2007 (UTC)
  
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 +
==Scales and Musical Modes in Celtic, Anglo-American and  English Folk Songs==
 +
 +
 +
The great folk song collectors, such as Cecil Sharp and Lucy Broadwood, were interested in the musical scales and modes (such as Ionian, Mixolydian, Dorian and Aeolian) in which Celtic, Anglo-American and English folk songs have come down to us. To read more about scales and modes click on this link: [[Scales_and_Musical_Modes_in_Celtic,_Anglo-American_and_English_Folk_Songs |Scales and Modes in Folk Songs]].
 +
 +
==Tune Analysis: How To Dissect, Interpret and Categorise Anglo-American, Celtic and English Folk Melodies==
 +
 +
To learn how to analyse Anglo-American, Celtic and English folk song melodies click on [[Tune_Analysis:_How_To_Dissect,_Interpret_and_Categorize_Anglo-American,_Celtic_and_English_Folk_Melodies | this link]].
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==Ionian, Mixolydian, Dorian and Aeolian: Samples and Examples of the 4 Main Musical Scales in Celtic, Anglo-American and English Folk Songs==
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For samples and examples follow this link [[Ionian,_Mixolydian,_Dorian_and_Aeolian:_Samples_and_Examples_of_the_4_Main_Musical_Scales_in_Celtic,_Anglo-American_and_English_Folk_Songs| Samples and Examples]]
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==Folk Song: Definitions, Concepts and Controversies==
 +
What is "folk song," "authenticity," "revival," and so on? To find out follow [[Folk_Song: Definitions, Concepts and Controversies| this link]].
 +
 +
==West Gallery Music==
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For information and links on West Gallery Music go to [[West Gallery Music]]
  
 
==Resources==
 
==Resources==
  
 
===Recordings===
 
===Recordings===
====Commercially Available Recordings====
 
''Currently available or deleted''
 
 
* [[Kyloe Records]]
 
* [[Leader Records]]
 
* [[Musical Traditions Records]]
 
* [[Topic Records]]
 
* [[Veteran]]
 
* [[Wildgoose Records]]
 
* [[New World Records]]
 
  
 +
Record labels produce recordings of both song and instrumental music, and a list of these can be found [[Recordings|here]]
  
 
=== Books & Bibliographies===
 
=== Books & Bibliographies===
Line 91: Line 119:
  
 
[http://www.efdss.org/songbib3.pdf English Folk Song Bibliography: An Introductory Bibliography Based on the Holdings of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, Third Edition, edited by David Atkinson]
 
[http://www.efdss.org/songbib3.pdf English Folk Song Bibliography: An Introductory Bibliography Based on the Holdings of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, Third Edition, edited by David Atkinson]
 +
 +
* Margaret Dean-Smith, ''A guide to English Folk Song Collections 1822 - 1952'', Liverpool: University Press of Liverpool, in Association with EFDSS (1954) - An earlier attempt at a bibliography but with substantial descriptions and publishing details of the books as well as an alphabetical index of the songs included in these collections. Still a valuable reference - particularly when used in conjunction with the Roud index.
 +
  
 
====Books====
 
====Books====
 +
 +
Probably the most important thing to know is what is available and in print now. The most up to date list is probably to be found at the [http://www.tradsong.org Traditional Song Forum web site] in the form of a list by publisher Dave Herron. Look on the [http://www.tradsong.org/Library.htm library pages] for Dave Herron's Chapbook.
 +
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Below is the place to put detail of ALL the folksong books that ever there were.
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* [[Books before 1900]]
 +
 +
* [[Broadside ballads]]
 +
 
* [[Song Books]]
 
* [[Song Books]]
Books of folk songs can be comprehensive anthologies of songs from a region, from a country, or a nation. Three important ones published in the early part of the current rvival are:
 
  
* The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs, by AL Loyd and Ralph Vaughan Williams, several editions from 1959 onwards, Penguin Books
+
* [[Folk Song Scholarship]]
  
* The Singing Island, by Ewan MacColl and Peggy Seeger, 1960, Mills Books
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====Songs in abc code====
  
* Folk Songs of Great Britain and Ireland, by Peter Kennedy, 1975, Cassell
+
For information on abc code see here[https://abcnotation.com/].
  
* [[Historic Books]] - Bronson, Chappell, Child, etc
+
There is a wide variety of software, much of it free.
  
* [[Books from the last century]]
+
EasyABC is widely used software. With it you can view sheet music, listen to MIDI renditions of tunes, create and edit abc files, and convert MusicXML files into abc code.
  
* [[Modern Scholarship]]
+
TradMusician is an Android programme. With it you can display sheet music and listen to MIDI renditions of tunes. If you do this on your mobile phone you can improve sound quality by casting to a Bluetooth speaker. 
  
* [[Song Books]]
+
* [[Songs in abc code]]
  
 
===Indexes===
 
===Indexes===
Line 116: Line 157:
 
** [[Ralph Vaughan Williams]]
 
** [[Ralph Vaughan Williams]]
 
** [[Maud Karpeles]]
 
** [[Maud Karpeles]]
 +
** [[John Broadwood]]
 
** [[Lucy Broadwood]]
 
** [[Lucy Broadwood]]
 
** [[H.E.D. Hammond]]
 
** [[H.E.D. Hammond]]
Line 121: Line 163:
 
** [[George Gardiner]]
 
** [[George Gardiner]]
 
** [[Percy Grainger]]
 
** [[Percy Grainger]]
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 +
* [[Francis J Child]]
  
 
The site also gives you access to the [http://library.efdss.org/cgi-bin/textpage.cgi?file=aboutRoud&access=off Roud Index], compiled by Steve Roud.
 
The site also gives you access to the [http://library.efdss.org/cgi-bin/textpage.cgi?file=aboutRoud&access=off Roud Index], compiled by Steve Roud.
  
'The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of 143,000+ references to songs that have been collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world.'
+
The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of 143,000+ references to songs that have been collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world.<br/>It is the most important finding aid for traditional song ever compiled, and not even the most casual researcher can afford to do without it.
 +
 
 +
==[[Other Nations]]==
 +
 
 +
Click on the title to go to the page

Latest revision as of 18:14, 8 May 2021

Category Advisor: Dr Vic Gammon

There are many thousands of songs. There are many song collections and many versions of the same song. Where to start looking? That's the problem.

All songs currently in Folkopedia are listed on the

Note. Our intention is not to restrict this initiative to English Song, but to use the present headings as a starting point to view whatever develops from wherever it comes.


The Take 6 Transcription Programme

Take 6 (also more recently, and in an augmented form, known as The Full English) is a major initiative from the English Folk Dance and Song Society to put online some of the major manuscript collections of folk songs and folk music. Check it out here [1]

The Take 6 Transcription Programme is an initiative hosted by Folkopedia to make the content of these manuscripts available as PDF sheet music, MIDIs, MusicXMLs and abc files. Check it out here: Transcription_Programme

Traditional Songs by Theme

It's often difficult to categorise a song. Is the song of a Thames Bargeman a sea song or an industrial one? Likewise a Fishing song. Many industrial or rural songs had a political dimension. It doesn't do to worry too much about it - the categories are really just a rough guide to get to something that fits the browser's interest and in the spirit of the Wiki might lead to somewhere altogether unexpected! Some Song Books are arranged by theme. Here are some of the common themes in folk song:

Songs of Love and Marriage romantic, unrequited, happy and unhappy wedlock, spinsters and batchelors, broken tokens

Songs of Seduction brief, bawdy, passionate and tragic

Songs of Country Life millers, blacksmiths, cobblers

Songs of Good Company drinking, carousing, conviviality

Hunting and Poaching Songs the fox, the hare, transportation

Sea Songs press gangs, men o' war, fishing & whaling, jack on shore

Soldiers' Songs the king's shilling, bloody battles

Songs of Comedy and Diversion comical tales, legendary animals, marvels

Ritual Songs folk ceremonies, mummer's plays

Songs of the Road travellers, gypsies and journeymen

Political and Historical Songs rebellion, reform, great events

Ballads

Children's Songs rhymes, game songs

Songs of Heroes and Villains Highwaymen, scoundrels, and adventurers, real and fictitious

Industrial Songs pits and mills


English ballad broadsides by theme at the National Library of Scotland

Traditional Singers

English Source Singers

Scottish Source Singers

Irish Source Singers

North American Source Singers

Australian Source Singers

Performance

section editor Chris Coe


This is a tricky section to think of including. One doesn't always associate folk song and 'performance' but some of the techniques applied by the traditional singers can bear scrutiny, especially by those who want to sing the same sort of songs.

The intimate fireside delivery of Walter Pardon.......

Lizzie Higgins taking a deep breath, expanding to be a 'giant' and setting forth..........

Johnny Doughty turning his cap sideways and singing the Herring's Head.....

And any one who has seen Jock Duncan perform the Two Sisters will have a vivid understanding of song delivery with gestures....


Watch this space.

--JohnnyAdams 22:46, 14 March 2007 (UTC)


Scales and Musical Modes in Celtic, Anglo-American and English Folk Songs

The great folk song collectors, such as Cecil Sharp and Lucy Broadwood, were interested in the musical scales and modes (such as Ionian, Mixolydian, Dorian and Aeolian) in which Celtic, Anglo-American and English folk songs have come down to us. To read more about scales and modes click on this link: Scales and Modes in Folk Songs.

Tune Analysis: How To Dissect, Interpret and Categorise Anglo-American, Celtic and English Folk Melodies

To learn how to analyse Anglo-American, Celtic and English folk song melodies click on this link.

Ionian, Mixolydian, Dorian and Aeolian: Samples and Examples of the 4 Main Musical Scales in Celtic, Anglo-American and English Folk Songs

For samples and examples follow this link Samples and Examples

Folk Song: Definitions, Concepts and Controversies

What is "folk song," "authenticity," "revival," and so on? To find out follow this link.

West Gallery Music

For information and links on West Gallery Music go to West Gallery Music

Resources

Recordings

Record labels produce recordings of both song and instrumental music, and a list of these can be found here

Books & Bibliographies

Books of and about folk songs abound and seem to increase at an exponential rate. It is ironic that computerisation and digitalisation, which make this site possible, also make it much easier and cheaper to publish new books. In addition, many rare and inaccessible books from the past have been scanned and placed on the web in recent years, which has helped more and more people to find songs and contribute to scholarship and discussion. Probably the most complete and recent listing of books is the one given immediately below. After that, there follows a short selection of some important books.

Bibliographies

English Folk Song Bibliography: An Introductory Bibliography Based on the Holdings of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library, Third Edition, edited by David Atkinson

  • Margaret Dean-Smith, A guide to English Folk Song Collections 1822 - 1952, Liverpool: University Press of Liverpool, in Association with EFDSS (1954) - An earlier attempt at a bibliography but with substantial descriptions and publishing details of the books as well as an alphabetical index of the songs included in these collections. Still a valuable reference - particularly when used in conjunction with the Roud index.


Books

Probably the most important thing to know is what is available and in print now. The most up to date list is probably to be found at the Traditional Song Forum web site in the form of a list by publisher Dave Herron. Look on the library pages for Dave Herron's Chapbook.


Below is the place to put detail of ALL the folksong books that ever there were.


Songs in abc code

For information on abc code see here[2].

There is a wide variety of software, much of it free.

EasyABC is widely used software. With it you can view sheet music, listen to MIDI renditions of tunes, create and edit abc files, and convert MusicXML files into abc code.

TradMusician is an Android programme. With it you can display sheet music and listen to MIDI renditions of tunes. If you do this on your mobile phone you can improve sound quality by casting to a Bluetooth speaker.

Indexes

The site also gives you access to the Roud Index, compiled by Steve Roud.

The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of 143,000+ references to songs that have been collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world.
It is the most important finding aid for traditional song ever compiled, and not even the most casual researcher can afford to do without it.

Other Nations

Click on the title to go to the page