Difference between revisions of "Penguin Book of English Folk Songs"

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== Analysis of the 70 tunes in Vaughan Williams and Lloyd (1959) The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs ==
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Links to the [[Song Books]] page and to [[Tune Analysis: How To Dissect, Interpret and Categorize Anglo-American, Celtic and English Folk Melodies]].
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Originally published as 'The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs', edited by [[Ralph Vaughan Williams]] and [[A.L. Lloyd]], Penguin Books, 1959.
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Revised edition published as 'Classic English Folk Songs', selected and edited by [[Ralph Vaughan Williams]] and [[A.L. Lloyd]], revised by [[Malcolm Douglas]], [[English Folk Dance & Song Society]], London, 2003.
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 +
== Contents of the book ==
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[[All Things Are Quite Silent]]    ([[Roud 2532]])
 +
 
 +
[[As Sylvie Was Walking]]    ([[Roud 170]])
 +
 
 +
[[The Banks of Green Willow]]    ([[Roud 172]]; [[Child 24]])
 +
 
 +
[[The Banks of Newfoundland]]    ([[Roud 1812]]; [[Laws K25]])
 +
 
 +
[[The Banks of Sweet Primroses]]    ([[Roud 586]])
 +
 
 +
[[The Basket of Eggs]]    ([[Roud 377]])
 +
 
 +
[[Benjamin Bowmaneer]]    ([[Roud 1514]])
 +
 
 +
[[The Blacksmith]]    ([[Roud 816]])
 +
 
 +
[[The Bold Benjamin]]    ([[Roud 2632]])
 +
 
 +
[[The Bramble Briar]]    ([[Roud 18]];  [[Laws M32]])
 +
 
 +
[[The Broomfield Hill]]    ([[Roud 34]];  [[Child 43]];  [[Greig/Duncan 2:322]];  [[Henry H135]])
 +
 
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[[The Cock-Fight]]    ([[Roud 211]])
 +
 
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[[The Cruel Mother]]    ([[Roud 9]];  [[Child 20]])
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[[The Daughter of Peggy, O]]    ([[Roud 117]]; [[Child 277]];  [[Greig/Duncan 7:1282]])
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[[Death and the Lady]]    ([[Roud 1031]])
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[[The Death of Queen Jane]]    ([[Roud 77]];  [[Child 170]])
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[[The Deserter from Kent]]    ([[Roud 2510]])
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[[The Devil and the Ploughman]]    ([[Roud 160]];  [[Child 278]])
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[[Droylsden Wakes]]    ([[Roud 3290]])
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[[The False Bride]]    ([[Roud 154]];  [[Greig/Duncan 6:1198]])
 +
 
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[[Fare Thee Well, My Dearest Dear]]    ([[Roud 1035]])
 +
 
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[[Gaol Song]]    ([[Roud 1077]])
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[[The Gentleman Soldier]]    ([[Roud 178]])
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[[Geordie]]    ([[Roud 90]];  [[Child 209]])
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[[George Collins]]    ([[Roud 147]];  [[Child 85]])
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[[The Golden Vanity]]    ([[Roud 122]];  [[Child 286]])
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[[The Green Bed]]    ([[Roud 276]];  [[Laws K36]])
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[[The Greenland Whale Fishery]]    ([[Roud 347]];  [[Laws K21]])
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[[The Grey Cock / The Lover's Ghost]]    ([[Roud 179]];  [[Child 248]])
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 +
[[I Wish, I Wish]]    ([[Roud 495]])
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[[Jack the Jolly Tar]]    ([[Roud 511]];  [[Laws K40]])
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[[John Barleycorn]]    ([[Roud 164]])
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[[Lisbon]]    ([[Roud 551]];  [[Laws N8]])
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[[Long Lankin]]    ([[Roud 6]];  [[Child 93]])
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[[Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor]]    ([[Roud 4]];  [[Child 73]])
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[[Lovely Joan]]    ([[Roud 592]])
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[[Lucy Wan]]    ([[Roud 234]];  [[Child 51]])
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[[Manchester Angel|The Manchester “Angel”]]    ([[Roud 2741]])
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[[Man of Burningham Town |The Man of Burningham Town]]    ([[Roud 665]])
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[[Mermaid, The|The Mermaid]]    ([[Roud 124]];  [[Child 289]])
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[[Mother, Mother, Make My Bed]]    ([[Roud 45]])
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[[New York Trader , The|The New York Trader]]    ([[Roud 478]];  [[Laws K22]])
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[[O Shepherd, O Shepherd]]    ([[Roud 1055]])
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[[Old Man from Lee, The|The Old Man from Lee]]    ([[Roud 362]];  [[Greig/Duncan 4:815]])
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[[On Monday Morning]]    ([[Roud 433]];  [[Laws Q6]])
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[[One Night As I Lay on My Bed]]    ([[Roud 672]])
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[[Outlandish Knight, The|The Outlandish Knight]]    ([[Roud 21]];  [[Child 4]])
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[[T'Owd Yowe Wi' One Horn]]    ([[Roud 1762]])
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[[Oxford City]]    ([[Roud 218]];  [[Laws P30]])
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[[Ploughman, The|The Ploughman]]    ([[Roud 2538]])
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[[Ratcliffe Highway]]    ([[Roud 598]])
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[[Red Herring , The|The Red Herring]]    ([[Roud 128]]; [[    TYG 31]])
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[[Robin Hood and the Pedlar]]    ([[Roud 333]];  [[Child 132]])
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[[Rounding the Horn]]    ([[Roud 4706]];  [[Henry H539]])
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[[Royal Oak, The|The Royal Oak]]    ([[Roud 951]])
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[[Sailor from Dover, The|The Sailor from Dover]]    ([[Roud 180]];  [[Laws P9]])
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[[A Sailor in the North Country]]    ([[Roud 1504]])
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[[Sailor in the North Country, The|A Sailor's Life]]    ([[Roud 273]];  [[Laws K12]])
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[[Salisbury Plain]]    ([[Roud 1487]])
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[[Ship in Distress, The|The Ship in Distress]]    ([[Roud 807]])
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[[Six Dukes Went A-Fishing]]    ([[Roud 78]])
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[[Streams of Lovely Nancy, The|The Streams of Lovely Nancy]]    ([[Roud 688]];  [[Henry H520]])
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[[Trees They Grow So High, The|The Trees They Grow So High]]    ([[Roud 31]];  [[Laws O35]])
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[[Whale-Catchers , The|The Whale-Catchers]]    ([[Roud 3291]])
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[[When I Was a Little Boy]]    ([[Roud 1706]])
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[[When I Was Young]]    ([[Roud 2583]])
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[[Ye Mar'ners All]]    ([[Roud 1191]])
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[[Young and Single Sailor, The|The Young and Single Sailor]]    ([[Roud 264]];  [[Laws N42]])
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[[Young Edwin in the Lowlands Low / Young Emma]]    ([[Roud 182]];  [[Laws M34]])
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[[Young Girl Cut Down in Her Prime]]    ([[Roud 2]];  [[Laws Q26]])
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== Analysis of the 70 tunes in Ralph Vaughan Williams and A.L. Lloyd (1959) ''The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs'' ==
  
  
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There are 21 tunes (c.30 per cent) in the Ionian, or major scale (17 pure heptatonic, 2 heptatonic with accidentals, 1 hexatonic and 1 --'Droylesden Wakes'--with only 4 notes of the scale). There are 11 (c.16 per cent) Mixoydian tunes (7 pure heptatonic, 2 heptatonic with accidentals, 1 hexatonic and 1 pentatonic). The Aeolian melodies number 12 (c.17 per cent) of which 7 are pure heptatonic, 4 heptatonic with accidentals, and 1 pentatonic. There are 25 Dorian tunes (c.36 per cent) of which 16 are pure heptatonic, 2 heptatonic with accidentals, and 7 hexatonic. Finally, 1 tune --'The Trees They Grow So High'-- is pure heptatonic Phrygian.
 
There are 21 tunes (c.30 per cent) in the Ionian, or major scale (17 pure heptatonic, 2 heptatonic with accidentals, 1 hexatonic and 1 --'Droylesden Wakes'--with only 4 notes of the scale). There are 11 (c.16 per cent) Mixoydian tunes (7 pure heptatonic, 2 heptatonic with accidentals, 1 hexatonic and 1 pentatonic). The Aeolian melodies number 12 (c.17 per cent) of which 7 are pure heptatonic, 4 heptatonic with accidentals, and 1 pentatonic. There are 25 Dorian tunes (c.36 per cent) of which 16 are pure heptatonic, 2 heptatonic with accidentals, and 7 hexatonic. Finally, 1 tune --'The Trees They Grow So High'-- is pure heptatonic Phrygian.
  
For definitions and explanations of authentic and plagal scales, and of the differnt scales and modes, see [[Scales and Musical Modes in Celtic, Anglo-American and  English Folk Songs]].  
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For definitions and explanations of authentic and plagal scales, and of the different scales and modes, see [[Scales and Musical Modes in Celtic, Anglo-American and  English Folk Songs]].
  
 
== Full Detailed Listing ==
 
== Full Detailed Listing ==
 
<br>
 
<br>
1 All Things are Quite Silent [1904]  Heptatonic D Dorian Authentic<br>
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1 [[All Things are Quite Silent]] [1904]  Heptatonic D Dorian Authentic<br>
2 As Sylvie Was Walking [1911] Heptatonic  D Aeolian 1 B natural--sharpened 7th, so tune modulates between Aeolian and a modern minor key Authentic<br>
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2 [[As Sylvie Was Walking]] [1911] Heptatonic  D Aeolian 1 B natural--sharpened 7th, so tune modulates between Aeolian and a modern minor key Authentic<br>
3 Banks of Green Willow, The [1904]  Hexatonic G Ionian no C (4th) Plagal<br>
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3 [[Banks of Green Willow, The]] [1904]  Hexatonic G Ionian no C (4th) Plagal<br>
4 Banks of Newfoundland, The [1926]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote A<br>
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4 [[Banks of Newfoundland, The]] [1926]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote A<br>
5 Banks of Sweet Primroses, The [1892]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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5 [[Banks of Sweet Primroses, The]] [1892]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
6 Basket of Eggs, The [1903]  Heptatonic G Aeolian Plagal<br>
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6 [[Basket of Eggs, The]] [1903]  Heptatonic G Aeolian Plagal<br>
7 Benjamin Bowmaneer [n.d.]  Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal<br>
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7 [[Benjamin Bowmaneer]] [n.d.]  Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal<br>
8 Blacksmith, The [1909]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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8 [[Blacksmith, The]] [1909]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
9 Bold Benjamin, The [1907]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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9 [[Bold Benjamin, The]] [1907]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
10 Bramble Briar, The [1914]  Heptatonic D Ionian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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10 [[Bramble Briar, The]] [1914]  Heptatonic D Ionian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
11 Broomfield Hill, The [1910]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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11 [[Broomfield Hill, The]] [1910]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
12 Cock-Fight, The [1905]  Heptatonic D Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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12 [[Cock-Fight, The]] [1905]  Heptatonic D Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
13 Cruel Mother, The [1907]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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13 [[Cruel Mother, The]] [1907]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
14 Daughter of Peggy, O, The [1908]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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14 [[Daughter of Peggy, O, The]] [1908]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
15 Death and the Lady [1946]  Heptatonic D Ionian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynotes C and B<br>
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15 [[Death and the Lady]] [1946]  Heptatonic D Ionian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynotes C and B<br>
16 Death of Queen Jane, The [1907]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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16 [[Death of Queen Jane, The]] [1907]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
17 Deserter from Kent, The [1907]  Heptatonic D Ionian Plagal<br>
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17 [[Deserter from Kent, The]] [1907]  Heptatonic D Ionian Plagal<br>
18 Devil and the Ploughman, The [1903]  Heptatonic E Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynotes D and C<br>
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18 [[Devil and the Ploughman, The]] [1903]  Heptatonic E Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynotes D and C<br>
19 Droylsden Wakes [n.d.]  4-note scale G Ionian no C (4th),  E (6th) or F (7th) Plagal<br>
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19 [[Droylsden Wakes]] [n.d.]  4-note scale G Ionian no C (4th),  E (6th) or F (7th) Plagal<br>
20 False Bride, The [1904]  Heptatonic G Ionian 1 flattened F (7th) so tune modulates between Ionian and Mixolydian Plagal<br>
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20 [[False Bride, The]] [1904]  Heptatonic G Ionian 1 flattened F (7th) so tune modulates between Ionian and Mixolydian Plagal<br>
21 Fare Thee Well, my Dearest Dear [1904]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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21 [[Fare Thee Well, my Dearest Dear]] [1904]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
22 Gaol Song [1906]  Pentatonic D Aeolian no B (6th) or C (7th) Authentic<br>
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22 [[Gaol Song]] [1906]  Pentatonic D Aeolian no B (6th) or C (7th) Authentic<br>
23 Gentleman Soldier, The [1907]  Pentatonic G Mixolydian no E (6th) or F (7th) Plagal<br>
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23 [[Gentleman Soldier, The]] [1907]  Pentatonic G Mixolydian no E (6th) or F (7th) Plagal<br>
24 Geordie [1908]  Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal<br>
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24 [[Geordie]] [1908]  Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal<br>
25 George Collins [1906]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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25 [[George Collins]] [1906]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
26 Golden Vanity, The [1906]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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26 [[Golden Vanity, The]] [1906]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
27 Green Bed, The [1909]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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27 [[Green Bed, The]] [1909]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
28 Greenland Whale Fishery, The [1906]  Heptatonic G Mixolydian 1 sharpened F so tune modulates between Mixolydian and Ionian Plagal<br>
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28 [[Greenland Whale Fishery, The]] [1906]  Heptatonic G Mixolydian 1 sharpened F so tune modulates between Mixolydian and Ionian Plagal<br>
29 Grey Cock, The [1951]  Heptatonic D Aeolian or F Ionian with alternative keynote. Authentic as D Aeolian,  Mainly Authentic--sub-keynotes E and D as F Ionian<br>
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29 [[Grey Cock, The]] [1951]  Heptatonic D Aeolian or F Ionian with alternative keynote. Authentic as D Aeolian,  Mainly Authentic--sub-keynotes E and D as F Ionian<br>
30 I Wish, I Wish [1951]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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30 [[I Wish, I Wish]] [1951]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
31 Jack the Jolly Tar [1904]  Heptatonic D Ionian Mainly Authentic--super-keynotes E and F<br>
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31 [[Jack the Jolly Tar]] [1904]  Heptatonic D Ionian Mainly Authentic--super-keynotes E and F<br>
32 John Barleycorn [1909]  Heptatonic D Dorian Authentic<br>
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32 [[John Barleycorn]] [1909]  Heptatonic D Dorian Authentic<br>
33 Lisbon [1904]  Heptatonic D Dorian 2 Cs (7ths) both sharpened--influence of modern mior scales? Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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33 [[Lisbon]] [1904]  Heptatonic D Dorian 2 Cs (7ths) both sharpened--influence of modern mior scales? Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
34 Long Lankin [1909]  Heptatonic G Aeolian the 1 F is sharpened so tune modulates between Aeolian and a modern minor scale. Plagal<br>
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34 [[Long Lankin]] [1909]  Heptatonic G Aeolian the 1 F is sharpened so tune modulates between Aeolian and a modern minor scale. Plagal<br>
35 Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor [1904]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic<br>
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35 [[Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor]] [1904]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic<br>
36 Lovely Joan [1908]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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36 [[Lovely Joan]] [1908]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
37 Lucy Wan [n.d.]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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37 [[Lucy Wan]] [n.d.]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
38 Manchester ‘Angel’, The [1906]  Heptatonic D Aeolian Authentic<br>
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38 [[Manchester ‘Angel’, The]] [1906]  Heptatonic D Aeolian Authentic<br>
39 Man of Burningham Town, The [1908]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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39 [[Man of Burningham Town, The]] [1908]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
40 Mermaid, The [1906]  Heptatonic G Aeolian Plagal<br>
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40 [[Mermaid, The]] [1906]  Heptatonic G Aeolian Plagal<br>
41 Mother, Mother, Make My Bed [1906]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic<br>
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41 [[Mother, Mother, Make My Bed]] [1906]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic<br>
42 New York Trader, The [1921]  Hexatonic D Dorian no B (6th) so tune could be either Dorian or Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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42 [[New York Trader, The]] [1921]  Hexatonic D Dorian no B (6th) so tune could be either Dorian or Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
43 O Shepherd, O Shepherd [1906]  Hexatonic G Dorian no  E (6th) Plagal<br>
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43 [[O Shepherd, O Shepherd]] [1906]  Hexatonic G Dorian no  E (6th) Plagal<br>
44 Old Man from Lee, The [n.d.]  Hexatonic D Dorian no B (6th). If flattened D Aeolian. Only 2 Cs (7ths) both sharpened so tune modulates between Dorian, Aeolian and a modern minor key. Authentic<br>
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44 [[Old Man from Lee, The]] [n.d.]  Hexatonic D Dorian no B (6th). If flattened D Aeolian. Only 2 Cs (7ths) both sharpened so tune modulates between Dorian, Aeolian and a modern minor key. Authentic<br>
45 On Monday Morning [1909]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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45 [[On Monday Morning]] [1909]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
46 One Night as I Lay on my Bed [1907]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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46 [[One Night as I Lay on my Bed]] [1907]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
47 Outlandish Knight, The [1908]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic<br>
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47 [[Outlandish Knight, The]] [1908]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic<br>
48 Owd Yowe Wi’ one Horn, T’ [1905]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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48 [[Owd Yowe Wi’ one Horn, T’]] [1905]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
49 Oxford City [1905]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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49 [[Oxford City]] [1905]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
50 Ploughman, The [1904]  Heptatonic D Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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50 [[Ploughman, The]] [1904]  Heptatonic D Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
51 Ratcliffe Highway [1905]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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51 [[Ratcliffe Highway]] [1905]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
52 Red Herring, The [1906]  Heptatonic G Mixolydian Authentic<br>
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52 [[Red Herring, The]] [1906]  Heptatonic G Mixolydian Authentic<br>
53 Robin Hood and the Pedlar [1906]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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53 [[Robin Hood and the Pedlar]] [1906]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
54 Rounding the Horn [1907]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic<br>
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54 [[Rounding the Horn]] [1907]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic<br>
55 Royal Oak, The [1912]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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55 [[Royal Oak, The]] [1912]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
56 Sailor from Dover, The [1909]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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56 [[Sailor from Dover, The]] [1909]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
57 Sailor in the North Country, A [1904]  Heptatonic G Dorian Plagal<br>
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57 [[Sailor in the North Country, A]] [1904]  Heptatonic G Dorian Plagal<br>
58 Sailor’s Life, A [1899]  Heptatonic G Mixolydian Plagal<br>
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58 [[Sailor’s Life, A]] [1899]  Heptatonic G Mixolydian Plagal<br>
59 Salisbury Plain [1904]  Heptatonic D Aeolian 3 of the Bs (6ths) are naturalised so tune modulates between Aeolian and Dorian. Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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59 [[Salisbury Plain]] [1904]  Heptatonic D Aeolian 3 of the Bs (6ths) are naturalised so tune modulates between Aeolian and Dorian. Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
60 Ship in Distress, The [1907]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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60 [[Ship in Distress, The]] [1907]  Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
61 Six Dukes went A-Fishing [1906]  Hexatonic G Mixolydian no F (7th). If this were sharpened tune would be G Ionian, so tune could be either Mixolydian or Ionian. Plagal<br>
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61 [[Six Dukes went A-Fishing]] [1906]  Hexatonic G Mixolydian no F (7th). If this were sharpened tune would be G Ionian, so tune could be either Mixolydian or Ionian. Plagal<br>
62 Streams of Lovely Nancy, The [1905]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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62 [[Streams of Lovely Nancy, The]] [1905]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
63 Trees they Grow so High, The [n.d.]  Heptatonic G Phrygian Plagal<br>
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63 [[Trees they Grow so High, The]] [n.d.]  Heptatonic G Phrygian Plagal<br>
64 Whale-Catchers, The [1900]  Heptatonic D Dorian 3 of the Fs (3rds) are sharpened so tune modulates between Dorian and Mixolydian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
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64 [[Whale-Catchers, The]] [1900]  Heptatonic D Dorian 3 of the Fs (3rds) are sharpened so tune modulates between Dorian and Mixolydian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C<br>
65 When I was a Little Boy [1947]  Hexatonic G Dorian no E (3rd) Plagal<br>
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65 [[When I was a Little Boy]] [1947]  Hexatonic G Dorian no E (3rd) Plagal<br>
66 When I was Young [1920]  Heptatonic D Ionian. 4 of the Gs (4ths) are sharpened. Authentic<br>
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66 [[When I was Young]] [1920]  Heptatonic D Ionian. 4 of the Gs (4ths) are sharpened. Authentic<br>
67 Ye Mar’ners All [1907] Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal<br>
+
67 [[Ye Mar’ners All]] [1907] Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal<br>
68 Young and Single Sailor, The [1908]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
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68 [[Young and Single Sailor, The]] [1908]  Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal<br>
69 Young Edwin in the Lowlands Low [1907]  Heptatonic G Aeolian Plagal<br>
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69 [[Young Edwin in the Lowlands Low]] [1907]  Heptatonic G Aeolian Plagal<br>
70 Young Girl Cut Down in her Prime, The [1909]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian. One of the Fs is flattened so tune modulates between Mixolydian and Dorian. Authentic<br>
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70 [[Young Girl Cut Down in her Prime, The]] [1909]  Heptatonic D Mixolydian. One of the Fs is flattened so tune modulates between Mixolydian and Dorian. Authentic<br>

Latest revision as of 08:24, 22 September 2021

Links to the Song Books page and to Tune Analysis: How To Dissect, Interpret and Categorize Anglo-American, Celtic and English Folk Melodies.

Originally published as 'The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs', edited by Ralph Vaughan Williams and A.L. Lloyd, Penguin Books, 1959.

Revised edition published as 'Classic English Folk Songs', selected and edited by Ralph Vaughan Williams and A.L. Lloyd, revised by Malcolm Douglas, English Folk Dance & Song Society, London, 2003.

Contents of the book

All Things Are Quite Silent (Roud 2532)

As Sylvie Was Walking (Roud 170)

The Banks of Green Willow (Roud 172; Child 24)

The Banks of Newfoundland (Roud 1812; Laws K25)

The Banks of Sweet Primroses (Roud 586)

The Basket of Eggs (Roud 377)

Benjamin Bowmaneer (Roud 1514)

The Blacksmith (Roud 816)

The Bold Benjamin (Roud 2632)

The Bramble Briar (Roud 18; Laws M32)

The Broomfield Hill (Roud 34; Child 43; Greig/Duncan 2:322; Henry H135)

The Cock-Fight (Roud 211)

The Cruel Mother (Roud 9; Child 20)

The Daughter of Peggy, O (Roud 117; Child 277; Greig/Duncan 7:1282)

Death and the Lady (Roud 1031)

The Death of Queen Jane (Roud 77; Child 170)

The Deserter from Kent (Roud 2510)

The Devil and the Ploughman (Roud 160; Child 278)

Droylsden Wakes (Roud 3290)

The False Bride (Roud 154; Greig/Duncan 6:1198)

Fare Thee Well, My Dearest Dear (Roud 1035)

Gaol Song (Roud 1077)

The Gentleman Soldier (Roud 178)

Geordie (Roud 90; Child 209)

George Collins (Roud 147; Child 85)

The Golden Vanity (Roud 122; Child 286)

The Green Bed (Roud 276; Laws K36)

The Greenland Whale Fishery (Roud 347; Laws K21)

The Grey Cock / The Lover's Ghost (Roud 179; Child 248)

I Wish, I Wish (Roud 495)

Jack the Jolly Tar (Roud 511; Laws K40)

John Barleycorn (Roud 164)

Lisbon (Roud 551; Laws N8)

Long Lankin (Roud 6; Child 93)

Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor (Roud 4; Child 73)

Lovely Joan (Roud 592)

Lucy Wan (Roud 234; Child 51)

The Manchester “Angel” (Roud 2741)

The Man of Burningham Town (Roud 665)

The Mermaid (Roud 124; Child 289)

Mother, Mother, Make My Bed (Roud 45)

The New York Trader (Roud 478; Laws K22)

O Shepherd, O Shepherd (Roud 1055)

The Old Man from Lee (Roud 362; Greig/Duncan 4:815)

On Monday Morning (Roud 433; Laws Q6)

One Night As I Lay on My Bed (Roud 672)

The Outlandish Knight (Roud 21; Child 4)

T'Owd Yowe Wi' One Horn (Roud 1762)

Oxford City (Roud 218; Laws P30)

The Ploughman (Roud 2538)

Ratcliffe Highway (Roud 598)

The Red Herring (Roud 128; TYG 31)

Robin Hood and the Pedlar (Roud 333; Child 132)

Rounding the Horn (Roud 4706; Henry H539)

The Royal Oak (Roud 951)

The Sailor from Dover (Roud 180; Laws P9)

A Sailor in the North Country (Roud 1504)

A Sailor's Life (Roud 273; Laws K12)

Salisbury Plain (Roud 1487)

The Ship in Distress (Roud 807)

Six Dukes Went A-Fishing (Roud 78)

The Streams of Lovely Nancy (Roud 688; Henry H520)

The Trees They Grow So High (Roud 31; Laws O35)

The Whale-Catchers (Roud 3291)

When I Was a Little Boy (Roud 1706)

When I Was Young (Roud 2583)

Ye Mar'ners All (Roud 1191)

The Young and Single Sailor (Roud 264; Laws N42)

Young Edwin in the Lowlands Low / Young Emma (Roud 182; Laws M34)

Young Girl Cut Down in Her Prime (Roud 2; Laws Q26)



Analysis of the 70 tunes in Ralph Vaughan Williams and A.L. Lloyd (1959) The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs

The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs contains 70 tunes. Of these 31 are plagal and 13 are authentic. There are 25 tunes that are mainly authentic but that contain at least one note that is below the keynote (sub-keynote), or, in one case, (Number 31, Jack, the Jolly Tar), two notes that are above the keynote (super-keynotes). One tune (Number 29, The Grey Cock) has 2 variant keynotes, one of which renders it as authentic and the other as mainly authentic. These tunes in The Penguin Book of English Folk Songs all have either D or G as their keynote. With one exception, (Number 52, The Red Herring, which is authentic) these tunes whose keynote is G are plagal, whereas tunes whose keynote is D are authentic or mainly authentic and, except for Number 31, Jack, the Jolly Tar, they have sub-keynotes such, for example, as the C below the keynote.

Full seven-note Heptatonic scales number 58, or c.82 per cent. There are 11 (c.15 per cent) six-note Hexatonic scales, and 2 (c.3 per cent) five-note Pentatonic scales. One tune, (Number 19, Droyelsden Wakes), has a 4 note scale.

There are 21 tunes (c.30 per cent) in the Ionian, or major scale (17 pure heptatonic, 2 heptatonic with accidentals, 1 hexatonic and 1 --'Droylesden Wakes'--with only 4 notes of the scale). There are 11 (c.16 per cent) Mixoydian tunes (7 pure heptatonic, 2 heptatonic with accidentals, 1 hexatonic and 1 pentatonic). The Aeolian melodies number 12 (c.17 per cent) of which 7 are pure heptatonic, 4 heptatonic with accidentals, and 1 pentatonic. There are 25 Dorian tunes (c.36 per cent) of which 16 are pure heptatonic, 2 heptatonic with accidentals, and 7 hexatonic. Finally, 1 tune --'The Trees They Grow So High'-- is pure heptatonic Phrygian.

For definitions and explanations of authentic and plagal scales, and of the different scales and modes, see Scales and Musical Modes in Celtic, Anglo-American and English Folk Songs.

Full Detailed Listing


1 All Things are Quite Silent [1904] Heptatonic D Dorian Authentic
2 As Sylvie Was Walking [1911] Heptatonic D Aeolian 1 B natural--sharpened 7th, so tune modulates between Aeolian and a modern minor key Authentic
3 Banks of Green Willow, The [1904] Hexatonic G Ionian no C (4th) Plagal
4 Banks of Newfoundland, The [1926] Heptatonic D Mixolydian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote A
5 Banks of Sweet Primroses, The [1892] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
6 Basket of Eggs, The [1903] Heptatonic G Aeolian Plagal
7 Benjamin Bowmaneer [n.d.] Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal
8 Blacksmith, The [1909] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
9 Bold Benjamin, The [1907] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
10 Bramble Briar, The [1914] Heptatonic D Ionian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
11 Broomfield Hill, The [1910] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
12 Cock-Fight, The [1905] Heptatonic D Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
13 Cruel Mother, The [1907] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
14 Daughter of Peggy, O, The [1908] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
15 Death and the Lady [1946] Heptatonic D Ionian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynotes C and B
16 Death of Queen Jane, The [1907] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
17 Deserter from Kent, The [1907] Heptatonic D Ionian Plagal
18 Devil and the Ploughman, The [1903] Heptatonic E Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynotes D and C
19 Droylsden Wakes [n.d.] 4-note scale G Ionian no C (4th), E (6th) or F (7th) Plagal
20 False Bride, The [1904] Heptatonic G Ionian 1 flattened F (7th) so tune modulates between Ionian and Mixolydian Plagal
21 Fare Thee Well, my Dearest Dear [1904] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
22 Gaol Song [1906] Pentatonic D Aeolian no B (6th) or C (7th) Authentic
23 Gentleman Soldier, The [1907] Pentatonic G Mixolydian no E (6th) or F (7th) Plagal
24 Geordie [1908] Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal
25 George Collins [1906] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
26 Golden Vanity, The [1906] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
27 Green Bed, The [1909] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
28 Greenland Whale Fishery, The [1906] Heptatonic G Mixolydian 1 sharpened F so tune modulates between Mixolydian and Ionian Plagal
29 Grey Cock, The [1951] Heptatonic D Aeolian or F Ionian with alternative keynote. Authentic as D Aeolian, Mainly Authentic--sub-keynotes E and D as F Ionian
30 I Wish, I Wish [1951] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
31 Jack the Jolly Tar [1904] Heptatonic D Ionian Mainly Authentic--super-keynotes E and F
32 John Barleycorn [1909] Heptatonic D Dorian Authentic
33 Lisbon [1904] Heptatonic D Dorian 2 Cs (7ths) both sharpened--influence of modern mior scales? Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
34 Long Lankin [1909] Heptatonic G Aeolian the 1 F is sharpened so tune modulates between Aeolian and a modern minor scale. Plagal
35 Lord Thomas and Fair Eleanor [1904] Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic
36 Lovely Joan [1908] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
37 Lucy Wan [n.d.] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
38 Manchester ‘Angel’, The [1906] Heptatonic D Aeolian Authentic
39 Man of Burningham Town, The [1908] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
40 Mermaid, The [1906] Heptatonic G Aeolian Plagal
41 Mother, Mother, Make My Bed [1906] Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic
42 New York Trader, The [1921] Hexatonic D Dorian no B (6th) so tune could be either Dorian or Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
43 O Shepherd, O Shepherd [1906] Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal
44 Old Man from Lee, The [n.d.] Hexatonic D Dorian no B (6th). If flattened D Aeolian. Only 2 Cs (7ths) both sharpened so tune modulates between Dorian, Aeolian and a modern minor key. Authentic
45 On Monday Morning [1909] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
46 One Night as I Lay on my Bed [1907] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
47 Outlandish Knight, The [1908] Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic
48 Owd Yowe Wi’ one Horn, T’ [1905] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
49 Oxford City [1905] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
50 Ploughman, The [1904] Heptatonic D Aeolian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
51 Ratcliffe Highway [1905] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
52 Red Herring, The [1906] Heptatonic G Mixolydian Authentic
53 Robin Hood and the Pedlar [1906] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
54 Rounding the Horn [1907] Heptatonic D Mixolydian Authentic
55 Royal Oak, The [1912] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
56 Sailor from Dover, The [1909] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
57 Sailor in the North Country, A [1904] Heptatonic G Dorian Plagal
58 Sailor’s Life, A [1899] Heptatonic G Mixolydian Plagal
59 Salisbury Plain [1904] Heptatonic D Aeolian 3 of the Bs (6ths) are naturalised so tune modulates between Aeolian and Dorian. Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
60 Ship in Distress, The [1907] Heptatonic D Dorian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
61 Six Dukes went A-Fishing [1906] Hexatonic G Mixolydian no F (7th). If this were sharpened tune would be G Ionian, so tune could be either Mixolydian or Ionian. Plagal
62 Streams of Lovely Nancy, The [1905] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
63 Trees they Grow so High, The [n.d.] Heptatonic G Phrygian Plagal
64 Whale-Catchers, The [1900] Heptatonic D Dorian 3 of the Fs (3rds) are sharpened so tune modulates between Dorian and Mixolydian Mainly Authentic--sub-keynote C
65 When I was a Little Boy [1947] Hexatonic G Dorian no E (3rd) Plagal
66 When I was Young [1920] Heptatonic D Ionian. 4 of the Gs (4ths) are sharpened. Authentic
67 Ye Mar’ners All [1907] Hexatonic G Dorian no E (6th) Plagal
68 Young and Single Sailor, The [1908] Heptatonic G Ionian Plagal
69 Young Edwin in the Lowlands Low [1907] Heptatonic G Aeolian Plagal
70 Young Girl Cut Down in her Prime, The [1909] Heptatonic D Mixolydian. One of the Fs is flattened so tune modulates between Mixolydian and Dorian. Authentic